【components of ethereum ecosystem】

The liquidity providers of Sushi and ETH, as well ascomponents of ethereum ecosystem the holders of xSushi, have the best team in the DeFi world to serve them and should be fully utilized.

(1) Guiding ideologybitcoin usd moneyGuided by Xi Jinping’s Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, thoroughly implement the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The spirit of the speech and the important speech at the celebration meeting for the 30th anniversary of the development and opening up of Pudong, scientifically grasp the new development stage, resolutely implement the new development concept, serve the construction of a new development pattern, firmly grasp the new urban function positioning given to Shanghai by the state, and earnestly practice the "people The important concept of “building cities, people cities for the people” is to satisfy the people’s longing for a better life as the starting point and end point, adhere to the strategic basis of expanding domestic demand, and further enhance consumption. In Shanghai, building a domestic large-scale cycle center node and a domestic and international dual-cycle strategic link The fundamental supporting role of the city, making greater contributions to the overall improvement of Shanghai’s urban energy level and core competitiveness.

visual code ethereum

(2) Basic principlesAdhere to government guidance and market leadership. Give better play to the government's overall planning role, strengthen top-level design and planning guidance, improve the working mechanism of linkage and coordination of all parties, improve relevant policies, and optimize system supply. Follow the laws of urban development and market rules, give full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation, stimulate the innovative vitality of market entities, enhance endogenous motivation, and enhance the soft power of cities.Insist on highlighting characteristics and innovative integration. Give full play to the advantages of Shanghai's resource endowment, highlight the unique advantages of the vast consumer market, agglomeration of high-end resources, active market innovation, and diversified consumer groups, extensively accumulate high-quality market players, deepen the linkage of the "four major brands", and vigorously develop various new formats and models . Promote the formation of a virtuous circle in which domestic and foreign markets are connected, industries are integrated, innovation is promoted, and rules are connected.Adhere to scientific layout and regional linkage. Benchmarking with international first-class standards, optimizing the layout of consumer infrastructure and public service systems, strengthening hub functions, creating consumer landmarks, and comprehensively improving the city’s commercial functions and consumer environment. Focusing on major national strategic deployments, we will give full play to the radiation and driving role of Shanghai's central city, improve the regional modern circulation system, open up urban circulation blockages, and jointly create new momentum for consumption growth, and promote the formation of a strong domestic market.(3) Overall goal

Focusing on planning guidance, market driving, standard docking, and institutional innovation, focusing on "international", focusing on "consumption", highlighting the "center", further improving the quality of supply, creating consumption landmarks, strengthening hub functions, optimizing the consumption environment, and accelerating Promote the quality and expansion of consumption, increase the scale of consumption flow, attract high-end consumption to return, and comprehensively improve Shanghai's international reputation, consumption prosperity, business activity, access convenience and policy guidance, and create a global new product launch site and a global consumer destination , Fully launch the "Shanghai Shopping" brand, and strive to be the first to basically build an international consumer center city with global influence, competitiveness and reputation by the end of the "14th Five-Year Plan".2. Main tasksLet's take a look at how to pay when XCM messages arrive at Polkadot.

For systems that do need to pay a certain fee, XCM provides the ability to use assets to purchase execution resources. In a nutshell, this includes three parts:Provide some assetsExchange assets in terms of computing time (weight in Substrate).XCM follows the instructions

After years of research and development, we finally formed a multi-chain market structure. There are currently more than 100 active public blockchains, many of which have their own unique applications, users, geographic distribution, security models, and design trade-offs. Regardless of what individual communities believe, the reality is that the universe tends to increase entropy, and the number of these networks is likely to continue to increase in the future.This type of market structure makes it necessary for us to obtain interoperability between different networks. Many developers have realized this, and the number of blockchain bridges surged last year, aiming to bring together increasingly fragmented networks. As of this writing, there have been more than 40 different bridging projects.

visual code ethereum

Interoperability unlocks innovation possibilitiesWith the development of a single ecosystem, they will develop their own unique advantages: stronger security, greater throughput, cheaper transaction fees, better privacy, specific resource supply (such as storage, computing, bandwidth), and Regional developer and user communities, etc. Bridges are important because they allow users to access new platforms and protocols; enable interoperability between protocols; allow developers to collaborate to build new products, and so on. More specifically, they have the following benefits:Improve the productivity and utility of existing crypto assetsBridging allows existing encrypted assets to be transferred to a new platform to do new things. like:

Send DAI to Terra to buy synthetic assets on Mirror, or earn revenue on AnchorSend TopShot from Flow to Ethereum as collateral for NFTfiUse DOT and ATOM as collateral to lend DAI on MakerExpand the product features of existing agreements

Bridging expands the design space that the protocol can implement. E.g:Use Yearn vaults for liquid mining on Solana and Avalanche

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NFT cross-chain sharing order book on Ethereum and Flow on Rarible ProtocolIndex Coop's proof of equity index

Unlock new feature use cases for users and developersBridging gives users and developers more choices. like:Arbitrage the price of SUSHI across DEX on Optimism, Arbitrum and PolygonUse Bitcoin to pay for Arweave storage feesBid NFT on Tezos with PartyBidFrom an abstract perspective, a bridge can be defined as follows: a system that transmits information between two or more blockchains. And "information" can refer to assets, contract calls, proofs, or status. Most bridge designs consist of the following parts:

Monitoring: There is usually a participant (or a "oracle", "verifier", "relayer") monitoring the status of the source chain.Message delivery/relay: After the participants receive the event, they need to transfer information from the source chain to the target chain.

Consensus: In some models, in order to forward information to the target chain, a consensus must be reached between participants monitoring the source chain.Signature: Participants need to encrypt and sign the information sent to the target chain, which can be single-signatured or as part of a threshold signature scheme.

There are roughly four types of bridging schemes, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages:Asset-specific: The sole purpose of this bridge type is to provide access to specific assets on external chains. These assets are usually "wrapped" assets (assets that are fully mortgaged by the underlying assets in custody or non-custody). Bitcoin is the most common asset bridged to other chains, and there are seven different bridges on Ethereum alone. This kind of bridging is the easiest to achieve, and obtain huge liquidity from it. But its functions are limited and need to be re-implemented on each target chain. Examples are wBTC and wrapped Arweave.

Chain-specific: A bridge between two chains, which usually supports the locking and unlocking of tokens on the source chain and the casting of arbitrary encapsulated assets on the target chain. Due to the limited complexity of these bridges, they can usually be marketed faster, but they are not easy to expand into the broader ecosystem. The use case is Polygon’s PoS bridge, which allows users to transfer assets from Ethereum to Polygon and vice versa, but only on these two chains.Application-specific: An application that provides access to two or more blockchains, but only for use in that application. The advantage of this kind of application itself is that the code base is small; instead of having a separate instance of the entire application on each blockchain, there are usually more lightweight and modular on each blockchain "Adapter". A blockchain that implements an "adapter" can access all other blockchains it is connected to, so there is a network effect. Their disadvantage is that it is difficult to extend this function to other applications (for example, from lending applications to transaction applications). Specific use cases are Compound Chain and Thorchain, which respectively build independent blockchains dedicated to cross-chain lending and transactions.Generalized: A protocol designed to transmit information across multiple blockchains. Due to its low complexity, this design enjoys a strong network effect-a single integration of the project allows it to access the entire ecosystem within the bridge. The disadvantage is that some designs usually trade-off between security and decentralization to achieve this scalability effect. This may have complex and unexpected consequences for the ecosystem. One of the use cases is IBC, which is used to send information in two heterogeneous chains (with a guarantee of finality).In addition, according to the mechanism used to verify cross-chain transactions, there are roughly three types of bridge designs:

Type 1: External validators & Federations (External validators & Federations)This type of bridging scheme usually has a group of verifiers that monitor the "mailbox" addresses on the source chain and perform operations on the target chain based on consensus. Asset transfer usually works like this: lock assets on the "mailbox", and then mint the same amount of assets on the target chain. These validators usually deposit separate tokens as collateral to ensure the security of the network.

Type 2: Light clients & RelaysParticipants monitor events on the source chain and generate encrypted packaging proofs about past events recorded on the chain. These proofs will be forwarded to the contract on the target chain (such as "light client") along with the block header, and then verify whether an event is recorded, and perform operations after verification. This design mechanism requires some participants to "relay" the block headers and proofs. Although users can "self-relay" transactions, there is indeed an active assumption that the relay will continue to forward data. This is a relatively secure bridging design because it guarantees the effective delivery of trustlessness without trusting intermediate entities. But it is also resource-intensive, because developers must build a new smart contract on each new target chain to parse the source chain's state proof; the verification process itself requires a large amount of gas.

Type 3: Liquidity networksThis is similar to a peer-to-peer network, where each node acts as a "router", holding a "library" of source and target chain assets. These networks usually take advantage of the security of the underlying blockchain; through the use of locking and dispute mechanisms, it can be ensured that routers will not steal users' funds. Because of this, a liquid network like Connext may be a safer choice for users who transfer large amounts of value. In addition, this type of bridge may be most suitable for cross-chain asset transfer, because the assets provided by the router are the original assets of the target chain, rather than derivative assets that cannot be completely replaced by each other.

It should be noted that any given bridge above is a two-way communication channel. There may be independent models in each channel, so this classification cannot accurately represent mixed models such as Gravity, Interlay, and tBTC. Because they all have light clients in one direction and validator nodes in the other direction.In addition, the design of a bridge can be roughly evaluated based on the following factors:Security: Trust and liveness assumptions, tolerance for malicious behavior, security and reflexivity of user funds.Speed: The delay time of transaction completion, and the guarantee of final certainty. There is usually a trade-off between speed and safety.

Connectivity: The choice of target chains for users and developers, and the different difficulty levels of integrating additional target chains.Capital efficiency: economic mechanism, which sets the transaction cost of capital and asset transfer required to ensure the security of the system.

Statefulness: The ability to transfer specific assets, more complex states, and/or perform cross-chain contract calls.In summary, the trade-offs of these three design mechanisms can be evaluated from the perspective of the following figure:

In addition, security is a scope, we can roughly divide it into the following categories:Trust-less: The security of the bridge is bound to the underlying blockchain it bridges. Unless the underlying blockchain is attacked by consensus-level attacks, users' funds will not be lost or stolen. In other words, this is not complete trustlessness, because all the economic, engineering, and cryptographic components of these systems contain trust assumptions (for example, there are no loopholes in the code).

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster